viernes, 21 de octubre de 2016

Cartonnage and Mummy of an Anonymous Man

Cartonnage and Mummy of an Anonymous Man
This cartonnage illustrates the combination of Egyptian with Classical art in the Roman Period: the idealized portrait includes the hieroglyph for “protection” (a symbol of Isis) as well as a wreath (in the Greek or Roman style). The red symbol on the left shoulder, which can easily be mistaken for a swastika, is actually an ancient Greek symbol for holiness, while at the bottom, the boat of Sokar (a form of the Egyptian sun god) is flanked by jackals.
Mummy of an Anonymous Man was unwrapped in the 1950s (when it was also the subject of a TV show—see the nearby kiosk), and rewrapped in 2010 for this exhibition. Carbon-14 dating conducted in 2009 suggests that this man died between 259 and 398 C.E., confirming the third-century date suggested by the style of the cartonnage.
MEDIUM Human remain, linen, plaster, paint, grass, wood
•Place Excavated: Deir el Bahri, Egypt
DATES 3rd century C.E.
PERIOD Roman Period
DIMENSIONS a: cartonnage: 13 1/4 x 35 7/16 in. (33.7 x 90.0 cm) b: necklace: 34 1/4 in. (87 cm) c-d: sheets: 39 3/8 x 84 1/4 in. (100.0 x 214.0 cm) c-d: fringe: 6 1/8 in. (15.6 cm) e: approx. height through nose: 8 in. (20.3 cm) e: approx. width at shoulders: 20 in. (50.8 cm) e: approx. length: 62 in. (157.5 cm)
Brooklyn Museum

The Coffins of Iyhat and Tairy

The Coffins of Iyhat and Tairy
Aidan Dodson

sarcophagus lid of Queen Sitdjehuti

The sarcophagus lid of Queen Sitdjehuti in the Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst. (Munich, Germany) Sitdjehuti was the daughter of king Senakhtenre and the wife of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao II from Egypt's 17th dynasty.

jueves, 20 de octubre de 2016


The fine painted coffin of Keki, found in his rock tomb at Beni Hasan. No lid has survived but the interior is painted with offerings to the deceased. Much of the bright colouring of the exterior has disappeared but traces of the geometric patterns imitating the mats hung on the walls of the houses. udjat-eyes enable the deceased to see out, toward the area where tomb offerings were left.The ritual prayers of offering invoke Anubis and Osiris, in the shorter lines of text other gods honour the deceased. The interior of the coffin is particularly fine, articles of clothing, equipment and food offerings have been painted on the walls, each article has it's designation in well executed hieroglyphs.
Present location LIVERPOOL MUSEUM [03/061] LIVERPOOL
Inventory number 55.82.113
Archaeological Site BENI HASSAN

miércoles, 19 de octubre de 2016

Coffin of Thothirdes

Coffin of Thothirdes
The Egyptian word for mummy, sah, means “nobility” or “dignity” and denotes a divine and eternal manifestation of the deceased. According to ancient belief, the mummified body has been transformed into a home for the soul. After death, the mummy reunites with the ba-soul, which travels outside the tomb and serves the needs of the ka-soul (which receives food offerings) and the akh-soul (which represents all the parts integrated and acting together as a capable being in the afterlife).
The mummy shown here has undergone carbon-14 dating, a scientific method used to determine the date of archaeological samples. The results indicate that Thothirdes died between 768 and 545 B.C.E., supporting the Twenty-sixth Dynasty date suggested by the style of his coffin.
Coffins like this one protected the mummy and ensured entrance to the afterlife by pictorially illustrating Egyptian hopes for what happens after death and by associating the deceased with Osiris, king of the dead. Near the center of the lid, Thothirdes is shown as a mummy, mourned by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys (respectively, the wife and sister of Osiris) just as they mourned Osiris himself. Thothirdes’s ba-soul, painted as a human-headed bird, hovers above him, signaling that his soul can work effectively after death. Slightly above this scene, two gods lead Thothirdes away from the test where his heart was weighed against “truth” in a balance scale. Having thus proven he lived a life of truth, Thothirdes is now on his way to a happy afterlife.
MEDIUM Wood, paint
•Place Found: Saqqara, Egypt
DATES 768-545 B.C.E., or 791-418 B.C.E.
PERIOD Late Period
DIMENSIONS Coffin Box (approximate): 22 x 7 5/16 x 69 in. (55.9 x 18.5 x 175.3 cm) Coffin Lid (approximate): 24 x 20 x 70 in. (61 x 50.8 x 177.8 cm) (show scale)
COLLECTIONS Egyptian, Classical, Ancient Near Eastern Art
MUSEUM LOCATION This item is not on view
EXHIBITIONS •Egypt Reborn: Art for Eternity
CREDIT LINE Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund
CAPTION Coffin of Thothirdes, 768-545 B.C.E., or 791-418 B.C.E. Wood, paint, Coffin Box (approximate): 22 x 7 5/16 x 69 in. (55.9 x 18.5 x 175.3 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.1521Ea-b. Creative Commons-BY (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 37.1521Eb_PS9.jpg)
IMAGE overall, 37.1521Eb_PS9.jpg. Brooklyn Museum photograph, 2016
CATALOGUE DESCRIPTION The object is a wooden coffin box (a) associated with an anthropoid coffin lid (37.1521Eb). The coffin bottom is constructed from several pieces of wood that have been mechanically joined together with wooden dowels. There are 8 rectangular holes on the top edge of the coffin box; 4 on either side, indicating where the tenons were used to secure the lid. The circular holes, piercing the walls of these sections, were for the dowels that were used to secure the tenons when the lid was closed. The exterior surface of the coffin box is covered with a plain, open weave fabric, likely linen, followed by a layer of white gesso, polychromy and a streaky, uneven, waxy coating. Visible in some areas below the linen layer is a reddish-brown, clay-like material. It appears that this material was occasionally used to even out the wood surface. The exterior of the coffin box is decorated with vertical hieroglyph inscriptions. The interior of the box appears to have the reddish-brown clay-like material over the wood, then a white gesso layer followed by a paint layer. The surface is matte and does not appear to have a varnish coating. The top edge of the coffin bottom is covered in a matte black resin(?). The interior design of the coffin depicts a woman figure (Isis?) with hieroglyphs below. Condition: The coffin box is in poor and unstable condition. There are a number of splits along the original joins of the wood planks. The splits present on the interior of the coffin box exhibit wide gaps where original dowel elements are visible. There is a large chunk of the reddish-brown, clay-like material wedged into one of the splits on the interior bottom of the coffin, which appears to be further opening the wood join and causing more structural instability. There are wood and/or paint/gesso losses along the splits/gaps on both the interior and exterior of the coffin box. The joins of pieces forming the foot end are visible due to loss of the paint/gesso layer. Originating from the wooden dowel elements that secure the sides of the coffin box to the foot are cracks in the top plank of wood on both the proper left and proper right sides. Scattered areas of the wood, particularly at the foot area are lifting, friable and deteriorating. On the exterior of the coffin box, there are areas of polychromed linen which are lifting away from the wood support. Although scattered overall, this is particularly severe on the bottom of the box and in areas associated with the cracks that have occurred as a result of the splitting of the wood joins. There are numerous areas of polychromed linen loss, which additionally have areas of lifting or loose polychromed linen. These areas of loss are scattered throughout, however are primarily on the bottom and along the top exterior edge of the coffin box. On the exterior foot end there are some areas of a grainy, light-grayish-pink material over the white wash. Linen is visible between the horizontal wood join. The interior of the coffin box exhibits areas of loose reddish-brown clay(?), gesso and paint as well as complete loss of these materials.


Aidan Dodson

martes, 18 de octubre de 2016


Coffins such as this did not provide a realistic portrait of the dead person, but rather they projected an idealised image of what they wished to look like for eternity. The plaited false beard Irthorru wears was associated with the god Osiris, who was the first person to be mummified and reborn into the afterlife. This beard, along with other symbols of rebirth such as the sun and scarab beetle, would have been intended to help Irthorru’s resurrection after death. is painted yellow, with white eyes and a black and a green-striped beard. The top of the head has a red-outlined winged scarab (beetle) pushing a red sun-disc that lies directly above the brow. The wings of the scarab reach down the wig on either side of the face and the upper row of feathers is red and the lower row is green.
A painted collar begins at the upper-arm level and is painted in red and green on a cream ground. It has a dominant triangular pattern ending in a row of alternate yellow and red rosettes and then a row of drop-pendants in green and cream. The hands emerge from the collar and painted yellow.
The sides of the coffin base and lid are decorated with a large cobra with its hood painted in green, stretching down the whole side of the coffin to the feet. It is enclosed by white-bordered bands alternating green and red, with a white central dot, and separated by narrow white and red bars.
The wig on the base is a solid green and is decorated on the underside with a standing winged goddess, with a red sun-disc on her head and a feather in each hand.
The dominant decorative scheme is a red and green criss-cross motif on a white ground decorated by a central column of text, enclosed by red and green bands.…/ancient-egy…/coffins-and-mummy-masks/
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