martes, 6 de octubre de 2015

Granite statue of Senmut holding Princess Neferure

Granite statue of Senmut holding Princess Neferure
From the temple of Amun, Karnak, Thebes, Egypt
18th Dynasty, around 1470 BC
The most important official of the reign of Hatshepsut
Senmut was born of relatively humble parents, but rose to high office in the reign of Hatshepsut (1491-1479 BC) and was probably her most trusted official. Here he is shown holding the Princess Neferure, her only daughter.
Senmut entered royal service in the reign of Thutmose II (1492-1479 BC), who was married to Hatshepsut, his half-sister. The couple had no male heir, and Thutmose II's only son and heir, Thutmose III, was the son of a lesser wife. On Thutmose's death, Hatshepsut was appointed regent for her young nephew, and later took on full royal titles as pharaoh.
There has been much speculation about Senmut's role during Hatshepsut's reign. By the time that Hatshepsut became regent, Senmut was Neferure's tutor. He had made at least seven statues of himself with Neferure, and this is one of the finest.
Senmut is shown with his robe wrapped around the princess, emphasizing the close connection between them. He clearly saw his role as tutor as very important, and his success must have played a part in the subsequent favour he enjoyed when Hatshepsut became king. His numerous titles and positions also included the role of steward of Amun. He oversaw royal building works at Thebes and organized the transport and erection of the two great obelisks dedicated to Hatshepsut in the Temple of Amun at Karnak. There is no evidence that he ever married and he is usually depicted only with his parents or with Neferure, leading to suggestions (without evidence) that he was Hatshepsut's lover.









|1-s-T-W59-O22- W3-W2\r1-!
(1) sT(j) Hb
(2) Hknw

1908 - purchased by Likhatchev at an Italian antiquarian in Cairo.
1918 - with the collection of Likhatchev donated to the Archaeological Institute, Petrograd.
1925 - with the collection of Likhatchev transferred to the Museum of Palaeography (since 1935 Museum of Books, Documents and Scripts) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR,
1938 - with the collection of Likhatchev transferred to the Institute of History, Leningrad.
1938 - with the collection of Likhatchev transferred to the Hermitage.

Bolshakov A.O., Egipetskiye zhertvenniki Starogo tsarstva iz sobraniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazhha. EV 24 (1988), 10-28, pp.25-27.
Bolshakov A.O. Fragment staroegipetskoy plitki dlya umashcheniy, SGE 51, 1986, p.46-48.



domingo, 4 de octubre de 2015

house (model)

Deir el-Medina, Tomb TT1, SENNEDJEM , son of Khabekhnet and Tahennu

Deir el-Medina, Tomb TT1, SENNEDJEM , son of Khabekhnet and Tahennu

 The entry to chamber C is a doorway of 1.25m height and 0.80m width, originally framed by a lintel and doorposts of limestone, and which included at its centre a wooden door, with inscriptions and paintings on both faces. The lintel and the left doorpost were donated to the Anthropological Museum of the University of California; the right doorpost would be in the storeroom of Deir el-Medina; the threshold is still in its original place, whilst the door-leaf is at the Cairo Museum (Cairo museum, No. ME 27303).
A small decorated corridor then leads into the actual chamber.

The tomb of Nyankhnefertem also known as Temi

Clearly, this was considered the most important of the two.

 The six upright doorposts 

These are arranged symmetrically about the central axis, three on each side, bearing vertical inscriptions and, at the bottom, a representation of the deceased above whom is his name. The differences from one to the other suggest that at least two people worked on them. In all cases, he wears a short beard, flared at the bottom, a necklace, and a kilt with a projecting triangular front. On the external and innermost doorposts Nyankhnefertem wears a short rounded wig, holding in one hand a kherep sceptre across his chest and in the other a folded piece of cloth. On the other two, he wears a longer wig which extends down to his shoulders and holding in front of him his long staff of office, and the other hand hangs at his side clutching a folded piece of cloth.

The three left doorpost representations are by the same artist and are of average quality with very few details. With those of the right side (see the image opposite), the figure of the middle doorpost is in stark contrast to all the others: the engraving is deeper, the facial features are better produced and there is more detail in the hieroglyphs: this is the work of a master/teacher, probably the model intended for his pupil(s?).
In contrast, his staff is very poorly executed: no variation in thickness, no bulge at the end: everything indicates a rather clumsy hand. Was it to show disapproval in the quality that someone cut the staff in this doorpost with several horizontal irregular cuts?
Above each of the characters where he holds the long staff he is inscribed with the name "Nyankhnefertem", but on ones where he holds the sceptre he is identified as "Temi". Note that the hieroglyph "tm", of the sledge, has been reversed in all instances except in the case of the middle doorpost on the right. Why this inversion? As will be discussed below, it is not about a mistake, but of a deliberate act.

The tomb of Nyankhnefertem also known as Temi

Model of Woman Reclining on a Bed with Headrest