sábado, 18 de octubre de 2014

bungle of bones

Bundle of bones with desiccated powdery white skin or other material, roughly wrapped in coarse linen mummy bandages, to form a cylinder similar to body of cat mummies

Period: Late Period
animal remains


cat amulet


Cat amulet

Period: Late Period
Dynasty: Dynasty 26–29
Date: 664–380 B.C.
Geography: From Egypt
Medium: Faience
Dimensions: h. 2.3 cm (7/8 in)
Credit Line: Bequest of Mary Anna Palmer Draper, 1915
Accession Number: 15.43.26

Kiten Burial

Kitten Burial Hints Egyptians Kept Cats 6,000 Years Ago

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The skeletons of six cats, including four kittens, found in an Egyptian cemetery may push back the date of cat domestication in Egypt by nearly 2,000 years.
The bones come from a cemetery for the wealthy in Hierakonpolis, which served as the capital of Upper Egypt in the era before the pharaohs. The cemetery was the resting place not just for human bones, but also for animals, which perhaps were buried as part of religious rituals or sacrifices. Archaeologists searching the burial grounds have found everything from baboons to leopards to hippopotaThe new find includes two adult cats and four kittens from at least two litters. The size of the bones and timing of the litters hints that humans may have kept the cats. The bones date back to between 3600 B.C. and 3800 B.C., which would be 2,000 years before the earliest known evidence of cat domestication in Egypt, archaeologists report in the May issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science. [See Images of the Ancient Egyptian Cats] muses. 

The origin of cats
Archaeologists once believed that cats were domesticated in the time of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt, approximately 4,000 years ago, between 2310 B.C. and 1950 B.C. But in 2004, researchers reported a 9,500-year-old joint burial of a cat and a human on the island of Cyprus.
Meanwhile, cat domestication in China may date back 5,300 years, according to research published in December 2013.
Wild or domestic?
The researchers analyzed the size and shape of the cat jaws, comparing them to those of wild and domestic cats in Europe. Scientists also judged the cats' ages by studying the animals' teeth and the growth plates at the ends of their bones. They found that the adults, a male and a female, were just under and just over a year old, respectively. 

The size of the bones suggests the cats belong to the species Felis silvestris, a small wildcat found in Africa, Europe and Central Asia. This is the species most likely to have been domesticated into today's modern housecat (Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus).
The new cat skeletons show no signs of injury, healed or not. But the ages of the cats suggest something strange was going on. In Egpyt, wild cats typically produce one litter per year, contingent on seasonal food availability, Van Neer and his colleagues report. Had the six cats in the cemetery been wild, the older generation should have been about 16 or 17 months old, in order to produce kittens 4 to 5 months old.
Instead, the adult cats were about a year old at death, suggesting that the natural reproductive cycle of the cats was disrupted, perhaps because humans were keeping and feeding the animals year round. 

Archaeologists know that cats later became an important part of Egyptian life and religion. After about 330 B.C., Egyptians even bred felines near temples to be sacrificed as offerings and mummified.
Researchers will need continued excavations and DNA evidence to pin down the origins of domesticated cats, Van Neer said. The Cyprus cat burial suggests that felines and humans lived in close quarters very early in the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean region that includes Cyprus as well as modern-day Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan.
"In the future," Van Neer said, "we want to investigate whether there was only one domestication center (in the Levant), or whether Egypt should also be considered as a second, later, domestication center."

- Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience


march 2014


Two cats surmounting a box for an animal mummy

Two cats surmounting a box for an animal mummy

Period: Late Period–Ptolemaic Period

Date: 664–30 B.C....

Geography: From Egypt

Medium: copper alloy

Dimensions: L. 8 cm (3 1/8 in); W. 6.3 cm (2 1/2 in); H. 5 cm (1 15//16 in); H. of cats 4 cm (1 9/16 in)

Credit Line: Gift of Darius Ogden Mills, 1904

Accession Number: 04.2.601
Met Museum.

source: http://www.metmuseum.org/collection

Sarcophagus of Mindjedef

Sarcophagus of Mindjedef

Period: Old Kingdom
Dynasty: Dynasty 4
Reign: reign of Khafra or Menkaure
Date: ca. 2520–2472 B.C.
Geography: From Egypt probably, Memphite Region, el-Giza, Eastern Cemetery, Mastaba G7760; Pit B (burial chamber), Harvard-Boston MFA 1929
Medium: Granite
Dimensions: h. 104.1 cm (41 in) × w. 96.5 cm (38 in) × l. 236.9 cm (93 1/4")
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, by exchange, 1954
Accession Number: 54.80a, b
Met Museum

Fired clay jar

Fired clay jar sealing

Period: Early Dynastic Period
Dynasty: Dynasty 1
Reign: reign of Aha
Date: ca. 3100 B.C.
Geography: From Egypt, Northern Upper Egypt, Naqada, Tomb of Neithhotep, Menes Tomb, Garstang 1904, Oxford Expedition to Nubia
Medium: Clay (fired)
Dimensions: H. 6.3 x W. 6 x D. 2.8 cm (2 1/2 x 2 3/8 x 1 1/8 in.)
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1920
Accession Number: 20.2.54
Met Museum

figure of a seated woman

Figurine of a Seated Woman

Period: Late Naqada II
Date: ca. 3450–3300 B.C.
Geography: From Egypt, Northern Upper Egypt, Possibly Naqada
Medium: Limestone, organic material, paint, malachite
Dimensions: D. 22.8 x H. 19.8 x W. 9.4 cm (9 x 7 13/16 x 3 11/16 in.)
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1907
Accession Number: 07.228.

Met Museum

 This limestone figurine is the finest preserved of unusual group of Predynastic statuettes. These seated women display beak-like noses and missing or schematized arms. The hair, narrow waist and wide hips are clearly shown to emphasize female sexuality. The light colored surface created an ideal canvas for painted details, including jewelry and animal figures that scholars now believe are associated with a ritual activity. Her eyes were enhanced with green malachite and her elaborate coiffure was modeled separately using a mixture of plant matter and fats. She wears a series of necklaces in red and green beads and unusual beaded anklets.