sábado, 31 de diciembre de 2016


The wooden model of domestic animals features a cow and two calves, painted in white and black, and three donkeys.
Through magic, the cattle will come to life to provide the deceased with milk and meat in the afterlife.
The donkeys will also be magically brought to life to haul the deceased's crops and equipment or to carry him if he wants to travel.


A crudely made wooden model depicting weaving. One woman stands spinning thread which she holds in her hand while the spindle revolves. Two other women are using a horizontal loom which has been painted onto the base of the model. This was placed in the tomb to ensure an unlimited supply of linen in the Afterlife.
Piotr Bienkowski and Angela Tooley, "Gifts of The Nile: Ancient Egyptian Arts and Crafts in the Liverpool Museum", 1995, 77; pl. 121.

Figurine of a dignitary

Figurine of a dignitary
This stuccoed and painted wooden figurine was probably part of a group of persons involved in a scene of everyday life. Represented in a walking attitude, the dignitary holds a baton in the left hand. The right hand without doubt gripped a sekhem-sceptre. The piece, which is distinguished by a quite heavy manufacture, resembles the pieces coming from the provincial necropoleis from the 1st Intermediate Period of from the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.

adoratrice of Amun

A bronze statue of a Divine Adoratrice of Amun, from the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt, in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.

viernes, 30 de diciembre de 2016

tomb of Renni

The tomb of Renni, numbered EK 7, is of great interest, not only in the setting of the site at El Kab, but more extensively because it is one of the rare Egyptian tombs which dates from the reign of Amenhotep I. From a decorative view point, one feels here the influence of the end of the Middle Kingdom, the cannon of the New Kingdom not yet being completely in place.

jueves, 29 de diciembre de 2016

Nursing woman

Nursing woman

    Old Kingdom

    Dynasty 5

    reign of Niuserre or later

    ca. 2420–2389 B.C. or later

    From Egypt; Probably from Memphite Region, Giza, Tomb of Nikauinpu

    Limestone, paint traces

    h. 10.5 cm (4 1/8 in)
     This woman sits on the ground with one knee raised. Against the hammock of cloth formed by her skirt stretched over her knee she holds a child whose yellow skin indicates she is a girl. With one hand the woman holds the child's head, while with the other she offers her breast to the child. The child's head is tilted back, either to gaze at the woman as nursing children may do, or perhaps in frustration as she cannot reach the breast. Behind the woman a red-painted and therefore male child kneels and pulls her second breast beneath her arm so that he can nurse, too.

    Among Old Kingdom serving statuettes, women with chldren are a non-standard subject; indeed this is the only example depicting nursing. Serving women with children are seen more often in reliefs: in one tomb a child clings to his mother's back while she grinds grain, and nearby another woman nurses a chlld while she tends baking bread. The fact that the woman in the statuette here wears a white kerchief as do so many of the women in food preparation tasks, presumably to keep flour and such from their hair, may imply that this woman was involved in such tasks when she takes a moment to care for the children.

miércoles, 28 de diciembre de 2016

Statuette of nursing woman.

Statuette of nursing woman.

 XII Dynasty. Ancient Egypt. Brooklyn Museum


The pose of the nursing woman—a standard one in Egyptian art—was also the hieroglyph meaning “nurse.” Because its subjects are not identified, this little figure probably did not represent real individuals but rather served as a votive gift requesting a goddess’s protection.
MEDIUM Limestone, paint
  • Place Made: Egypt
  • DATES ca. 1938-after 1630 B.C.E.
    DYNASTY XII Dynasty-XIII Dynasty


    Bust of colossal statue of a young king
    Upper part of a colossal statue in the style of the late Ptolemaic Period. The Ptolemies presented themselves as the rulers of Egypt with sculpture decked in pharaonic regalia. The locks of hair, peeping out from under the royal head-dress or Nemes, mirror the taste of the period. In this case the facial characteristics and the lock at the side clearly point to a young age. This is probably a prince depicted as Horus the child (Harpocrates).
    Inventori number 5780

    viernes, 9 de diciembre de 2016

    Unfinished Stela to Amun-Re

    Unfinished Stela to Amun-Re
    Period:New Kingdom, RamessideDynasty:Dynasty 20Date:ca. 1184–1070 B.C.Geography:Probably from Upper Egypt, Thebes; From EgyptMedium:Limestone, paintDimensions:H. 42.5 cm (16 3/4 in)Credit Line:Rogers Fund, 1921Accession Number:21.2.6
    This unfinished stela from the Valley of the Kings depicts the barque of Amun-Re carried in procession. Below is a hymn to the god, recited by the scribe Amennakht, his son Pentwere, and the chief carpenter, Amenemope. The god was believed to give oracles during such processions by influencing the movements of the priests carrying the barque shrine. the coronation inscription on a statue in Turin, Italy , seems to indicate that such an oracle took place when the pharaoh Haremhab ascended to the throne.


    Period:Third Intermediate PeriodDynasty:Dynasty 22Date:ca. 945–715 B.C.Geography:From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Tomb MMA 825, MMA excavations, 1929–30Medium:PotteryDimensions:H. 15.5 cm (6 1/8 in); w. 9 cm (3 9/16 in)Credit Line:Rogers Fund, 1931Accession Number:31.3.110
    Three votive beds (31.3.108, 31.3.109 and a third in Cairo) and a small stela (31.3.110) were excavated in MMA tomb 825 at Deir el Bahri. These are very well-preserved examples of a type of ob...ject that appeared only in Thebes between the 22nd and 26th Dynasties. A number of recent studies of the type and of MMA 31.3.108 in particular have revealed much about their significance and about their many interesting implications for understanding non-temple religious practices and artistic provision for the same.
    The decoration of these objects includes frontal standing nude females in boats with figureheads like sacred barks, Bes figures, and particular vegetation; some other examples include a kneeling female playing a lute. The decoration carries with it significations for female fertility, conception, and birth. However, it also seems likely that votive beds are associated with the Egyptian New Year festival, and the myth of the return of the absent goddess and the flood. This is indicated, for example, by the crown worn by the female figure, which is one usually worn by Anukis, a goddess linked to the return of the flood. The origin of the particular bed-form and the use of the objects are hardly clear, but based on analysis of find spots it has been suggested that the objects are associated with the coterie of temple women around the god Amun and the God’s Wives.

    lunes, 28 de noviembre de 2016


    Inventory number: AMS 62




    Raven, M. J., De Dodencultus van het Oude Egypte, Amsterdam 1992, 71, nr. 28.
    Schneider, H. D., Life and Death under the Pharaohs, Perth 1997, nr. 229b.


    Tomb TT175

    Then follows a man, armed with a pitchfork, who sends corn onto a pile lying on the threshing floor. Here again are the oxen who, by their trampling, ensure the threshing. To the right of this scene, the reapers cut the ears (a very damaged scene). Finally, on the far left of the register there are three baskets of red fruit that resembles bundles of leaves . Two men approach: one holding two birds by their wings, the second carries elongated vases.

    viernes, 25 de noviembre de 2016

    Ahmose ans Ipy, his wife

    The present el-Kab corresponds to the ancient city of Nekhen, once very important city, the powerful capital of the 3rd nome of Upper Egypt.
    To the north-east of the city is a sandstone hill filled with tombs which essentially date from the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty All these tombs are fronted by a common terrace .
    Chapel N°5 of Ahmose - Son of Ibana is famous for its autobiographic text which tells the military campaigns in which the deceased participated, but the monument was never the object of a complete publication.
    The chapel was created, according to its texts, by the deceased's grandson, Paheri, to celebrate this famous ancestor - and the lineage from which he was himself the descendant.
    Ahmose has not been buried here: there is only one funeral shaft, dug in an annexe, and it was created after his death. Paheri, himself, has his own burial close by.
    Ahmose ans Ipy, his wife

    miércoles, 23 de noviembre de 2016


    't Hooft, Ph. P. M., Raven, M. J., Rooij, E. H. C. van, en G. M. Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic and Early Medieval Egyptian textiles, in: Collections of the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden 8, Leiden 1994, nr. 150.
    Raven, M. J., Mummies onder het mes, Amsterdam 1993, 40-41, 60-61.
    Schneider, H. D., Life and Death under the Pharaohs, Perth 1997, nr. 204.


    International inventory number 06/001/13916
    Leemans, C., Aegyptische Monumenten van het Nederlandse Museum van Oudheden te Leiden I.6, Leiden 1844, pl. XX, 75.
    Schneider, H. D., Life and Death under the Pharaohs, Perth 1997, nr. 168.


    jueves, 17 de noviembre de 2016

    Seated female

    Seated female
    Period:HalafDate:ca. 5600–5000 B.C.Geography:Mesopotamia or SyriaCulture:HalafMedium:Ceramic, paintDimensions:H. 5.1 cm, W. 4.5 cmClassification:Ceramics-SculptureCredit Line:Purchase, Leon Levy and Shelby White Gift, 1985Accession Number:1985.84
    Distinctive clay female figures like this one were produced at sites belonging to the Halaf culture. This example displays a strong stylization with an emphasis on the sexual features. She sits with her large thighs extended, supporting her breasts with her arms; neither hands nor feet are shown. Her head is missing; in other figures of this type when the head is intact, it is elongated into a large noselike projection but otherwise is featureless. Remains of paint may represent jewelry. The meaning of such representations is unknown but may be connected with fertility. The stylized depiction of the nude female form remained an artistic convention in northern Syria, Anatolia, and the Aegean for several millennia.

    Two Vases in the Shape of a Mother Monkey with her Young

    Two Vases in the Shape of a Mother Monkey with her Young
    Period:Old KingdomDynasty:Dynasty 6Reign:reigns of Pepi I and MerenreDate:ca. 2289–2246 BCGeography:From EgyptMedium:Travertine (Egyptian alabaster), paint, resin and pigmentDimensions:30.8.134: h. 18.6 cm (7 5/16 in.) 1992.338: h. 13.7 cm (5 3/8 in.)Credit Line:Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.8.134); Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, Fletcher Fund, and Lila Acheson Wallace, Russell and Judy Carson, William Kelly Simpson, and Vaughn Foundation Gifts, in honor of Henry George Fischer, 1992 (1992.338)

     These charming vases are carved in the shape of mother monkeys each holding a baby clinging tightly to her chest. Alluding to motherhood and fertility, and also to the exotic lands that provided rare ingredients for the rejuvenating oils and unguents stored inside, they are inscribed wtih references to the kings' jubilee. It is likely that the vessels were given by Sixth Dynasty kings to favored courtiers, particularly women.

    offering table

    Offering table
    Period:Old KingdomDynasty:Dynasty 6Date:ca. 2323–2150 B.C.Geography:From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Old Kingdom Cemetery, Tomb I, Pit B, MMA Excavations 1932Medium:Travertine (Egyptian alabaster)Dimensions:h. 8.5 cm (3 3/8 in); diam. 37.5 cm (14 3/4 in)

    martes, 15 de noviembre de 2016


    There is no architectural representation in this panel, not even an altar. Only three tables of offerings are illustrated resting on the floor.
    The conventions of Egyptian drawing are perfectly respected. The scene shows the king and the queen one behind the other, but who were actually side by side (view 48), who throw a fragrant resin into the two braziers which surmount the offerings on the table. These braziers were in fact in front of the table on which one had stacked the usual animal and plant products. Akhenaten is crowned with the khepresh, and is clothed only with of a loincloth resting on his hips. The whole of his body is represented particularly gynoid (pear-shaped), very similar to that of Nefertiti. [NB: The possible significance of the sovereign's physical representation is discussed in the article Akhenaten and the religion of the Aten]. Behind the couple are two of their daughters who wear the hanging side lock of childhood - Merytaten and Maketaten (who shake sistra).
    Meryra is accompanied by another priest, both are much smaller than Akhenaten. He holds out to the king the products destined for the offering, probably a cone of incense.
    Seen here is the position which Akhenaten assigned to the above dignitary of his clergy : the one of an underling, with no theological role since the king and the queen, and them only, could address Aten and provide worship of the cult in its fullness. However, he probably had the power to assist in worship, probably simplified, when the sovereigns were indisposed.
    The representation of the disk which surmounts the scene is extraordinary and has never been found elsewhere
    . It was the subject of numerous speculations which deserve a special chapter.
    TOMB N°4, North Group

    sábado, 12 de noviembre de 2016

    The tomb of Pennut

    South wall
    In the register underneath is found beneath the divine triad, Pennut and the "Supervisor of the granaries, Penre"; the latter is responsible for ensuring the proper implementation of the statue’s maintenance.
    Under Ptah and Thoth, two women are visible, which belong to a scene located on the east wall.
    The gift of the statue and the management of its worship reflect the privileged status of Pennut and are a source of prestige, like the authorization to represent his sovereign in his tomb.
    Pennut plans to continue to benefit from this status in the afterlife, since the legal deed of gift, engraved on the walls remain visible to all visitors of the chapel and to the gods named in the tomb.
    The tomb of Pennut

    The tomb of Pennut

    martes, 8 de noviembre de 2016

    Head from an Osiride Statue of Hatshepsut

    Head from an Osiride Statue of Hatshepsut
    Period:New KingdomDynasty:Dynasty 18Reign:Joint reign of Hatshepsut and Thutmose IIIDate:ca. 1479–1458 B.C.Geography:From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Jaw from "Hatshepsut Hole"/rest from Senenmut Quarry, MMA excavations, 1922–23/1926–28
    This head originally belonged to one of the Osiride statues that were carved in high relief in niches along the rear wall of the upper terrace of Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el Bahri. Hatshepsut wears the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt suggesting that the head was from a figure in one of the niches on the northern side of the terrace. Another head, 31.3.163, wears the White Crown of Upper Egypt and came from a niche on the southern side.
    These Osiride figures were architectural accents rather than freestanding statues and were carved from the same limestone blocks that were used to construct the temple itself. Four Osiride statues decorated the corners of the temple's shrine of Amun (31.3.153–.155), and a series of much larger statues were attached to the pillars at the front of the upper terrace (31.3.156, 31.3.158, 31.3.159).
    Met Museum

    domingo, 6 de noviembre de 2016


    This wooden spindle was found, together with three similar objects, in the tomb of the 'embroideress' at Antinoopolis during the excavations led by A. Gayet. The instrument served to spin linen or wool. The bottom of the disk has been flattened, while the top shows a curve. It is possible that the disk once held a hook which guided the thread.
    Inventory number E.1031A


    This model of wood, which was found during the excavations of A. Gayet at Antinoopolis, depicts a standing man, a woman sitting before a chopping-block and a loaf which is found on the floor. It was probably part of a baking scene. The piece, which carries traces of stucco and paint, dates from the Middle Kingdom.
    J. Breasted, Egyptian Servant Statues, Washington 1948, 30 nº 6
    Génie des hommes, âme de l'homme (Exposition), Huy 1998, 14, 41 nº 28

    Model of a funerary boat

    Model of a funerary boat
    Funerary boat, of low keel and not too high ends. Six persons are standing in line on its deck, holding a lamb to be sacrificed. On one end of the boat there is a squatting man, who would be in charge of the rudder, and next to him another man standing up, completing the crew. This piece is not of high artistic merit; it is the product of a workshop for middle class customers who were improving their lifestyle in this period. It is not a boat for going on pilgrimage to Abydos, but a model of offering bearers that were placed inside the tombs.
    Present location MUSEO ARQUEOLÓGICO NACIONAL [21/007] MADRID
    Inventory number 16029
    Archaeological Site EL-GABALIN/GEBELEIN
    Category BOAT (MODEL)
    Material WOOD
    Height 13.5 cm
    Width 8.5 cm
    Bibliography• ALMAGRO BASCH, M; ALMAGRO GORBEA, M, J; PEREZ - DIE, Mª C, Arte Faraónico. Exposición,1975, P. 103 Nº 43,
    •PEREZ- DIE, Mª C., Egipto. Guía didáctica del Museo Arqueológico Nacional. I, 1985, P.32.
    •Guía Histórica y Descriptiva del Museo Arqueológico Nacional, 1917, P.96.
    •ALVAREZ- OSSORIO, F., Una visita al Museo Arqueológico Nacional, 1925, P.35.
    •PEREZ DIE, Mª C., La Collection Egyptienne du Musée Archéologique National de Madrid (Espagne). Acts. First International Congress of Egyptology. October 1976, Berlín, 1979, lám. LXXII.
    •PEREZ DIE, M.C. La Tumba de Tutmosis III. Las horas oscuras del sol. Catálogo de la Exposición, Madrid 2004, p.110

    sábado, 5 de noviembre de 2016

    facsimile ocas

    Facsimile Painting of Geese, Tomb of Nefermaat and Itet
    Artist:Charles K. Wilkinson [painted 1920-21]
    Period:Original: Old KingdomDynasty:Dynasty 4Reign:reign of SnefruDate:ca. 2575–2551 B.C.Geography:Original from Egypt, Memphite Region, Meidum, Tomb of Nefermaat and Itet, outer chapel of ItetMedium:Tempera on paperDimensions:facsimile: h. 24.5 cm (9 5/8 in); w. 161.5 cm (63 9/16 in) scale:1:1 framed: h. 30.5 cm (12 in); w. 167 cm (65 3/4 in)
    This facsimile copies a painting from the early Dynasty 4 tomb of Nefermaat and Itet at Meidum, the original of which is now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo (Cairo CG 1742). The geese were once part of a larger scene found on the north wall in the tomb chapel of Itet, the wife of the vizier Nefermaat, and likely the daughter-in-law of King Snefru. As members of the royal family, the pair was granted a large mastaba tomb close to the pyramid of the king and could employ the most sought-after artists of the day to help in its decoration. The geese were depicted below a scene showing men trapping birds in a clap net and offering them to the tomb’s owner. While it is not uncommon to find scenes of fowling in the marshes in Old Kingdom tombs, this example is one of the earliest and is notable for the extraordinary quality of the painting. The artist took great care in rendering the colors and textures of the birds’ feathers and even included serrated bills on the two geese bending to graze.
    Met Museum


    Slab stela of Nefertiabet.

    Slab stela of Nefertiabet.


    The stools of the sons are painted white; the disposition of the struts of these seats form an on-going motif in Egyptian furniture and the links which tie the different elements are minutely detailed.
    Before the first character, one reads "his son Amen-iunu(...), before the third "his son Nebma'at, just of voice", before the last "his son Ay, j(ust of voice)". The effigies of the first and second son are mutilated very severely. Their representation is based on the one of their father. All have a naked torso and wear a short loincloth with a triangular front-piece, a green collar and a short round wig. In their left hand closed on the chest, a piece of bent material.
    A servant, clothed only in a simple loincloth and a short wig, stretches out to the first son (the eldest) possibly a cup. Behind him four tall, very round, earthenware jars of a lilac hue and with red and black decor, closed by an upturned white cup, as well as a smaller rose coloured vase with a flat-bottom from which he draws the drink that he offers
    Notice that, for lack of place, these jars are not on the same level as the characters and that they rest on a papyrus mat
    TOMB 340 was discovered by Bernard Bruyère in 1925. It is a tiny vault located below a courtyard and which one reaches by some steps.

    viernes, 4 de noviembre de 2016