miércoles, 26 de octubre de 2016

martes, 25 de octubre de 2016

mummy cartonnages

Fragments of ancient Egyptian mummy cartonnages in the Musée des beaux-arts in Rennes, in France. Maybe from Thebes. Date : 22th or 23th dynasty (third intermediary period). This kind of carefully ornated cartonnage used to cover the mummy in the tombs during this pediod. Upper left : Cartonnage fragment with falcon, mentioning a T(A)NE(T)KHAT (?), right [thigh ?]. Bottom left : D.08.5.34. Cartonnage fragment with name DJED-AMON, right side

dame d'Antinoë

Ancient Egyptian mummy with painted shroud, commonly called the "dame d'Antinoë" (lady of Antinoe), in the Musée des beaux-arts in Rennes, in France. She was discovered in the town of Antinoopolis (also called Antinoe) in 1909 and was restored in 2008.

lunes, 24 de octubre de 2016

Portrait of the younger girl Aline´s tomb

Mumienporträt wohl einer Tochter der Aline, Tempera auf Leinwand, um 24 n.Chr., gefunden in Hawara/Fayum; Ägyptisches Museum Berlin/Altes Museum, Inv.-Nr. 11412

 Portrait of the younger girl
Aline´s tomb

Portrait of the middle girl Aline´s tomb

Portrait of the middle girl
Aline´s tomb

Mumienporträt wohl einer Tochter der Aline, Tempera auf Leinwand, um 24 n.Chr., gefunden in Hawara/Fayum; Ägyptisches Museum Berlin/Altes Museum, Inv.-Nr. 11413

The portrait of Aline

The portrait of Aline[5] was painted in tempera on linen, as were those of the two girls. It has a height of 40 cm and a width 32.5 cm. Below the painted cloth, scraps of linen pressed onto the mummy's face were used to provide an even surface, so that the portrait is nearly flat. Some of the portraits were painted before the death of their subject, but in Aline's case, where it is actually painted on the end of the mummy wrapping, it appears to have been produced after death, perhaps based on a previously prepared portrait.[6] As is common for mummy portraits, the painting produces the impression of three-dimensional depth, a relatively recent feature in Egyptian art and due to Graeco-Roman influences. Frontal depictions of human faces had also been unusual throughout most of the history of Egyptian art. The wavy hairstyle with a central parting is painted simply, but carefully. The small ringlets above the forehead are striking. The face appears full, but not fat. It conveys the impression that this woman, who belonged to the middle or upper levels of Egyptian society, had led a good life. Her simple jewellery is carefully painted. The depiction of the necklace made of gilded plaster, added to the portrait. Aline wears a white tunica or chiton, thin lilac bands (clavus) run across her shoulder. The colours are warm. The sad, wistful gaze is typical of mummy portraits. Altogether, it is a masterful portrait of a middle-aged woman.

Portrait funéraire de la momie d'Aline 24 après J.-C. Empire romain tempera sur toile, 42 cm Hawara (site archéologique en bordure du Fayoum) Site du musée www.neues-museum.de/

also called Tenos
daughter of Herodes
much loved
died in year 10, age 35 years
on the 7th of Mesore

Iufenamun the mummy priest

Iufenamun the mummy priest
Iufenamun fact file
Mid-late 10th century BC, Third Intermediate period, Early 22nd Dynasty
Coffin made from
Yellow painted wood
Coffin dimensions
Length 180cm, depth 31cm
Coffin lid
The coffin comes with a lid which dates from the same period, but which belongs not to Iufenamun but to a priestess of Amun called Tjentwerethequa, now thought to be Iufenamun’s grandmother.
Museum reference
On display
Discoveries, Level 1, National Museum of Scotland
Did you know?
The royal pharaohs reburied by Iufenamun were rediscovered in 1881. The story is told in Egyptian director Shadi Abdel Salam’s 1969 film Al-Mumiyaor The Night of the Counting Years.
Who was Iufenamun?
The prestigious titles, along with the high quality of the embalming and coffin base, imply that Iufenamun was a man of considerable importance. But who was he?
His titles suggest that he was a senior priest of Amun-Ra (Iufenamun means “he belongs to Amun”), and that he had many wide-ranging duties, including responsibility for the necropolis, or burial ground.
This means that this mummy could well be Iufenamun, son of Nesypaqashuty. This is an exciting discovery, as this Iufenamun was a significant figure in Egyptian history.

Qurna burial

The burial was discovered in the first valley to the north of the road to the Valley of the Kings.
A letter from Flinders Petrie dated 18 January 1909 to an unnamed correspondent gives an insight into the discovery of the burial:
"We have been about six weeks at Thebes. Our main purpose was to search the northern valleys, where it is was reported that there might be tombs. We settled therefore at a small hill north of the road up to the Kings Tombs where some rock-tombs served for our workmen and my wife and myself, while some brick huts were built for dining rooms and bedrooms.
"Though we have cut innumerable trenches about the valleys, and on one spot kept 24 men and boys for over a month, yet only one tomb has been found in the desert valleys. That is a perfect burial of about the XVII dynasty. There was no valuable article in it, but the whole was an unusual and good group.
"A coffin of the Aahmen style, ten pots in beautifully made string mats, most of which have more or less preserved with collodian. A blue marble dish with four apes. A horn with ivory bird-head spout. An obsidian and an alabaster khol pot of fine work. Two bead net pouches with handles. A head rest with inlaid stem of ivory and ebony. Two baskets, and sundry…"
Who was buried in the grave?
The coffin contained the mummy of a slender woman, around five feet tall, aged about 18-25. The mummy wore a magnificent collar of gold rings, a pair of gold earrings, two pairs of gold bracelets, and a girdle of fine electrum rings as well as a scarab and an electrum button.
With her was the white-painted rectangular coffin of a 2-3 year old child. The child’s mummy wore a necklace of gold rings, a pair of gold earrings, a girdle and pair of anklets made from blue-glazed rings, and three ivory bangles, two on the left arm and one on the right.

viernes, 21 de octubre de 2016

Cartonnage and Mummy of an Anonymous Man

Cartonnage and Mummy of an Anonymous Man
This cartonnage illustrates the combination of Egyptian with Classical art in the Roman Period: the idealized portrait includes the hieroglyph for “protection” (a symbol of Isis) as well as a wreath (in the Greek or Roman style). The red symbol on the left shoulder, which can easily be mistaken for a swastika, is actually an ancient Greek symbol for holiness, while at the bottom, the boat of Sokar (a form of the Egyptian sun god) is flanked by jackals.
Mummy of an Anonymous Man was unwrapped in the 1950s (when it was also the subject of a TV show—see the nearby kiosk), and rewrapped in 2010 for this exhibition. Carbon-14 dating conducted in 2009 suggests that this man died between 259 and 398 C.E., confirming the third-century date suggested by the style of the cartonnage.
MEDIUM Human remain, linen, plaster, paint, grass, wood
•Place Excavated: Deir el Bahri, Egypt
DATES 3rd century C.E.
PERIOD Roman Period
DIMENSIONS a: cartonnage: 13 1/4 x 35 7/16 in. (33.7 x 90.0 cm) b: necklace: 34 1/4 in. (87 cm) c-d: sheets: 39 3/8 x 84 1/4 in. (100.0 x 214.0 cm) c-d: fringe: 6 1/8 in. (15.6 cm) e: approx. height through nose: 8 in. (20.3 cm) e: approx. width at shoulders: 20 in. (50.8 cm) e: approx. length: 62 in. (157.5 cm)
Brooklyn Museum

The Coffins of Iyhat and Tairy

The Coffins of Iyhat and Tairy
Aidan Dodson

sarcophagus lid of Queen Sitdjehuti

The sarcophagus lid of Queen Sitdjehuti in the Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst. (Munich, Germany) Sitdjehuti was the daughter of king Senakhtenre and the wife of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao II from Egypt's 17th dynasty.

jueves, 20 de octubre de 2016


The fine painted coffin of Keki, found in his rock tomb at Beni Hasan. No lid has survived but the interior is painted with offerings to the deceased. Much of the bright colouring of the exterior has disappeared but traces of the geometric patterns imitating the mats hung on the walls of the houses. udjat-eyes enable the deceased to see out, toward the area where tomb offerings were left.The ritual prayers of offering invoke Anubis and Osiris, in the shorter lines of text other gods honour the deceased. The interior of the coffin is particularly fine, articles of clothing, equipment and food offerings have been painted on the walls, each article has it's designation in well executed hieroglyphs.
Present location LIVERPOOL MUSEUM [03/061] LIVERPOOL
Inventory number 55.82.113
Archaeological Site BENI HASSAN

miércoles, 19 de octubre de 2016

Coffin of Thothirdes

Coffin of Thothirdes
The Egyptian word for mummy, sah, means “nobility” or “dignity” and denotes a divine and eternal manifestation of the deceased. According to ancient belief, the mummified body has been transformed into a home for the soul. After death, the mummy reunites with the ba-soul, which travels outside the tomb and serves the needs of the ka-soul (which receives food offerings) and the akh-soul (which represents all the parts integrated and acting together as a capable being in the afterlife).
The mummy shown here has undergone carbon-14 dating, a scientific method used to determine the date of archaeological samples. The results indicate that Thothirdes died between 768 and 545 B.C.E., supporting the Twenty-sixth Dynasty date suggested by the style of his coffin.
Coffins like this one protected the mummy and ensured entrance to the afterlife by pictorially illustrating Egyptian hopes for what happens after death and by associating the deceased with Osiris, king of the dead. Near the center of the lid, Thothirdes is shown as a mummy, mourned by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys (respectively, the wife and sister of Osiris) just as they mourned Osiris himself. Thothirdes’s ba-soul, painted as a human-headed bird, hovers above him, signaling that his soul can work effectively after death. Slightly above this scene, two gods lead Thothirdes away from the test where his heart was weighed against “truth” in a balance scale. Having thus proven he lived a life of truth, Thothirdes is now on his way to a happy afterlife.
MEDIUM Wood, paint
•Place Found: Saqqara, Egypt
DATES 768-545 B.C.E., or 791-418 B.C.E.
PERIOD Late Period
DIMENSIONS Coffin Box (approximate): 22 x 7 5/16 x 69 in. (55.9 x 18.5 x 175.3 cm) Coffin Lid (approximate): 24 x 20 x 70 in. (61 x 50.8 x 177.8 cm) (show scale)
COLLECTIONS Egyptian, Classical, Ancient Near Eastern Art
MUSEUM LOCATION This item is not on view
EXHIBITIONS •Egypt Reborn: Art for Eternity
CREDIT LINE Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund
CAPTION Coffin of Thothirdes, 768-545 B.C.E., or 791-418 B.C.E. Wood, paint, Coffin Box (approximate): 22 x 7 5/16 x 69 in. (55.9 x 18.5 x 175.3 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.1521Ea-b. Creative Commons-BY (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 37.1521Eb_PS9.jpg)
IMAGE overall, 37.1521Eb_PS9.jpg. Brooklyn Museum photograph, 2016
CATALOGUE DESCRIPTION The object is a wooden coffin box (a) associated with an anthropoid coffin lid (37.1521Eb). The coffin bottom is constructed from several pieces of wood that have been mechanically joined together with wooden dowels. There are 8 rectangular holes on the top edge of the coffin box; 4 on either side, indicating where the tenons were used to secure the lid. The circular holes, piercing the walls of these sections, were for the dowels that were used to secure the tenons when the lid was closed. The exterior surface of the coffin box is covered with a plain, open weave fabric, likely linen, followed by a layer of white gesso, polychromy and a streaky, uneven, waxy coating. Visible in some areas below the linen layer is a reddish-brown, clay-like material. It appears that this material was occasionally used to even out the wood surface. The exterior of the coffin box is decorated with vertical hieroglyph inscriptions. The interior of the box appears to have the reddish-brown clay-like material over the wood, then a white gesso layer followed by a paint layer. The surface is matte and does not appear to have a varnish coating. The top edge of the coffin bottom is covered in a matte black resin(?). The interior design of the coffin depicts a woman figure (Isis?) with hieroglyphs below. Condition: The coffin box is in poor and unstable condition. There are a number of splits along the original joins of the wood planks. The splits present on the interior of the coffin box exhibit wide gaps where original dowel elements are visible. There is a large chunk of the reddish-brown, clay-like material wedged into one of the splits on the interior bottom of the coffin, which appears to be further opening the wood join and causing more structural instability. There are wood and/or paint/gesso losses along the splits/gaps on both the interior and exterior of the coffin box. The joins of pieces forming the foot end are visible due to loss of the paint/gesso layer. Originating from the wooden dowel elements that secure the sides of the coffin box to the foot are cracks in the top plank of wood on both the proper left and proper right sides. Scattered areas of the wood, particularly at the foot area are lifting, friable and deteriorating. On the exterior of the coffin box, there are areas of polychromed linen which are lifting away from the wood support. Although scattered overall, this is particularly severe on the bottom of the box and in areas associated with the cracks that have occurred as a result of the splitting of the wood joins. There are numerous areas of polychromed linen loss, which additionally have areas of lifting or loose polychromed linen. These areas of loss are scattered throughout, however are primarily on the bottom and along the top exterior edge of the coffin box. On the exterior foot end there are some areas of a grainy, light-grayish-pink material over the white wash. Linen is visible between the horizontal wood join. The interior of the coffin box exhibits areas of loose reddish-brown clay(?), gesso and paint as well as complete loss of these materials.


Aidan Dodson

martes, 18 de octubre de 2016


Coffins such as this did not provide a realistic portrait of the dead person, but rather they projected an idealised image of what they wished to look like for eternity. The plaited false beard Irthorru wears was associated with the god Osiris, who was the first person to be mummified and reborn into the afterlife. This beard, along with other symbols of rebirth such as the sun and scarab beetle, would have been intended to help Irthorru’s resurrection after death.
H...is is painted yellow, with white eyes and a black and a green-striped beard. The top of the head has a red-outlined winged scarab (beetle) pushing a red sun-disc that lies directly above the brow. The wings of the scarab reach down the wig on either side of the face and the upper row of feathers is red and the lower row is green.
A painted collar begins at the upper-arm level and is painted in red and green on a cream ground. It has a dominant triangular pattern ending in a row of alternate yellow and red rosettes and then a row of drop-pendants in green and cream. The hands emerge from the collar and painted yellow.
The sides of the coffin base and lid are decorated with a large cobra with its hood painted in green, stretching down the whole side of the coffin to the feet. It is enclosed by white-bordered bands alternating green and red, with a white central dot, and separated by narrow white and red bars.
The wig on the base is a solid green and is decorated on the underside with a standing winged goddess, with a red sun-disc on her head and a feather in each hand.
The dominant decorative scheme is a red and green criss-cross motif on a white ground decorated by a central column of text, enclosed by red and green bands.
Ver más

viernes, 14 de octubre de 2016

Kneeling figure of Nachthorheb holding a shrine

Kneeling figure of Nachthorheb holding
a shrine
XXVI dynasty
Neues Museum

Ram's-head Amulet

Ram's-head Amulet
Period: Kushite Period
Dynasty: Dynasty 25
Date: ca. 712–664 B.C.
Geography: Possibly from Nubia; From Egypt and Sudan
Medium: Gold
Dimensions: h. 4.2 cm (1 5/8 in); w. 3.6 cm (1 7/16 in); d. 2.0 cm (3/4 in); weight 65 grams
Credit Line: Gift of Norbert Schimmel Trust, 1989
Accession Number: 1989.281.98
This amulet was probably made for a necklace worn by one of the Kushite kings. Representations show these pharaohs wearing a ram's-head amulet tied around the neck on a thick cord, the ends of which fall forward over the shoulders. Sometimes a smaller ram's head is attached to each end. Rams were associated with the god Amun, particularly in Nubia, where he was especially revered.

Sa Amulet

Sa Amulet
Period: Middle Kingdom
Dynasty: Dynasty 11
Date: ca. 2051–1981 B.C.
Geography: From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Temple of Mentuhotep II, North Triangular Court, Pit 23 (tattooed woman), found on body, MMA excavations, 1922–23
Medium: Silver, electrum
Dimensions: H. 8.5 cm (3 3/8 in); w. 3.5 cm (1 3/8 in); th. 0.1 cm (1/16 in)
Credit Line: Rogers Fund, 1925
Accession Number: 25.3.253
This hieroglyph, depicting a shepherd's rolled-up shelter, means protection. It was used regularly as an amulet and carried by certain deities, especially the Bes image and Taweret.
This "sa" amulet was found in the same tomb with a "seweret" bead (25.3.252) and a wooden box (25.3.255a–c). The "sa" amulet extends protection to the wearer, whether in life or death.

Heart amulets

Heart amulets
Period: New Kingdom
Dynasty: Dynasty 18–19
Date: ca. 1550–1186 B.C.
Geography: From Egypt
Medium: Agate, glass
Dimensions: Agate (10.130.1702): H. 2.2 cm (7/8 in); w. 1.9 cm (3/4 in)
Glass (10.130.1804): H. 2.1 cm (13/16 in); w. 1.9 cm (3/4 in)
Credit Line: Gift of Helen Miller Gould, 1910
Accession Number: 10.130.1782,.1804-related
Heart amulets, Dynasty 18–19 (ca. 1550–1186 B.C.)
Gift of Helen Miller Gould, 1910 (10.130.1782)
Heart amulets, Dynasty 19–20 (ca. 1295–1070 B.C.)
Gift of Helen Miller Gould, 1910 (10.130.1804)
For the ancient Egyptians, the heart (ib) was the source of intelligence, feelings, and actions. A person's memory was also housed in the heart and so at the judgment ceremony (Weighing of the Heart) in the afterlife, the heart was able to speak on behalf of the deceased, accounting to Osiris for a lifetime of deeds. Therefore, heart amulets were only used on the mummy to protect the owner's organ and to ensure that his heart gave a positive response at judgment.