jueves, 31 de marzo de 2016


Earthenware vase, truncate cone-shaped, with a ring-shaped foot that is set off from the body and a painted decoration in a dark chestnut colour on the basis of stylised plant motifs.
Corresponde al conjunto de materiales excavados por la Misión Arqueológicoa Española en Nubia, bajo patrocinio de la UNESCO.
ALMAGRO BASCH, M., "La necrópolis neroítica de Nag Gamus (Masmás, Nubia), vol. VIII, Madrid, 1965, p. 98, fig. 88.2, lám. XXV.1.
Inventory number 1980/98/106


Pottery bowl with reddish burnished exterior surface. The interior surface, as well as the rim, are burnished black.
Inventory number: 1980/91/134
Corresponde al conjunto de materiales excavados por la Misión Arqueológicoa Española en Nubia, bajo patrocinio de la UNESCO.

Prince Mentuherkhepsef

King’s Valley (KV) tomb No.19 belongs to Prince Mentuherkhepsef, a son of pharaoh Ramesses IX. It was originally designated to be the burial place of pharaoh Ramesses VIII until this king’s premature death aborted this plan. KV19 is only partly decorated but it features some of the finest reliefs dating to the Late New Kingdom period of Egypt.

martes, 29 de marzo de 2016

West wall. Sennedjem tomb

The sun sets between two lions, seated back to back, supporting the hieroglyph of the double hill, which represents the horizon. Above them is the hieroglyph of the sky.
The gods represented here could be Ruty and Aker, but the latter could also be Ra or Atum. Here, it is more likely that the representation is of the god Ruty (ru-ty being a nisbe form : two lions), linked with Shu and Tefnut in earlier times. The lion, which lived at the borders of the desert to the east an...d the west of the Nile valley, is appropriate to these two cardinal points. In §17 of the Book of the Dead, it is on the back of Ruty that the sun rises daily.
The two lions are sometimes named yesterday and tomorrow. So the idea of the solar cycle is perpetually renewed, typical of the Egyptian mentality which is obsessed, as the sociologist of religions Max Weber said, by "the strong desire to endure".

West wall. Sennedjem tomb


The reserve heads display a natural grandeur and are all fully shaven, as if they wore skullcaps, so that it is often difficult to distinguish between male and female portraits.
This head, which depicts a member of Chephren's family, is characteristic of this type of sculpture. The eyes continue towards the nose in deeply cut lines. The eyebrows and high cheekbones are in raised relief.
The typical nose and the slightly frowning mouth add to the realistic character of this portrait of a self-assured member of the upper classes.
Inventory number JE 46216

Sennedjem . TT1

The composition is symmetrical in relation to a central axis. This axis is composed of a white pedestal, forming an altar which supports a labelled canopic jar, surrounded by two overlapping lotus flowers. Above is a vase surmounted by the 3 wavy lines representing "Nun" (the primordial ocean from which the world arose), and topped with the circular "shen" hieroglyph. This is framed by two simplified udjat eyes, a witness of the reconstituted body.
This group, a highly symbolic image of rebirth, is protected by two lapis-blue Anubis jackals, one on either side, reclining on tomb-shaped structures. Around the neck of each jackal is a red bow, and a black flail projects from its back. The interpretation of the red ribbon remains controversial, possibly a chthonic symbol. The facade of the tomb-like structure, on which the jackals rest, is pierced by a door, which corresponds to the entry of the deceased's funeral chapel, and generally to the underground world, represented by the ancients as a mastaba. They also assume the same position as the baboons on the tympanum opposite, except here they represent the termination of the daily course of the sun, its setting in the west.
Sennedjem . TT1

Estatua de Ptahhotep

Estatua de Ptahhotep

Sennedjem . TT1

This measures 1m long with a height of 42cm. At the top of the decorated surface is a blue hieroglyph for the "sky". Below this, decorated in an expanse of colour, is a representation of the solar barque of "Atum, who rests in the mountain of the west", travelling from east to west on a shorter blue "sky" hieroglyph (but which can here also be representative of the underground Nile). The barque and its passenger are adored from in front of the prow and behind the stern by standing images of Sennedjem.
At the front of the barque squats the Horus–child (known to the Greeks as the Harpocrate), with a finger to its mouth. A frog, symbol of eternity, is placed under the prow at the level of the water. The mummiformed god Atum, wearing the pschent (or double crown of Egypt), faces left and holds the sign of life on his knee. In front of him, stands the shemset symbol meaning "followers" (Gardiner T18) and behind him, close to the two oar-rudders, is a representation of the primitive Lower Egypt sanctuary of Buto, with a rounded roof
Sennedjem . TT1

Silver Boat of Queen Ahhotep

Silver Boat of Queen Ahhotep
Because travel depended on the River Nile, the custom of including model boats in tomb goods began in very ancient times. Boats were thought to be essential to the deceased for their journeys in the afterlife.
This is one of several model boats made of gold and silver.
This miniature boat was found on top of a chariot in the tomb of Queen Ahhotep. It is less detailed than other models, since it has only the oarsmen and the helmsman on board.
Inventory number JE 4682

The silver dish of King Psusennes the First

 Silver Dish of King Psusennes the First

The silver dish of King Psusennes the First is an admirable example of craftsmanship with a very original decoration.

Eight flowers and eight buds are arranged around a central raised gold ornament that forms a rosette at the bottom of the bowl. Twenty wavy lines radiate from this central piece toward the rim, where they curve back to rejoin their neighbors.

The movable gold handle is held in place by two thick rings of a flat, thin piece of metal that is riveted to the body.



Inventory number JE 85904



domingo, 27 de marzo de 2016

La política exterior de Cleopatra VII Filópator*

La política exterior de Cleopatra VII Filópator*
Pilar Rivero**
Universidad de Zaragoza

Model boat

Model boat
Painted wooden model of a Nile boat with rowers and armed guard. This boat model includes an armed man with speckled cowhide shield. He may be the officer and the crew would then be a troop of soldiers. The military features in burials of this date may reflect conditions during and after the civil wars of the Ist Intermediate Period (ended c. 2025 BC).
Present location NATIONAL MUSEUM OF IRELAND [30/002] DUBLIN ...
Inventory number 1920:270
Archaeological Site BENI HASSAN
Category BOAT (MODEL)
Material WOOD

Bibliography•John Garstang, The Burial Customs of Ancient Egypt, London 1907, 89-98, 160-161, 231-232.

pdf Cleopatra

Terracotta head of Akhenaten

Terracotta head of Akhenaten
This small terracotta head of Akhenaten exhibits all the characteristics of Amarna art. The viewer should observe the very typical face with the elongated veiled eyes, high cheekbones, fleshy mouth, and rounded elongated chin. The only unusual feature is the band around the edge of the face: does it represent the ends of a curly wig or is it a very simplified stylised version of the frizzy hair of the subject? This miniature masterpiece seems a m...uch more personal and subtle object than the output of most of sculptural trial pieces and models which have come from the site of El-`Amarna.
Present location KMKG - MRAH [07/003] BRUSSELS
Inventory number E.6368
Archaeological Site EL-`AMARNA/AKHETATEN ?
Material POTTERY
Height 5 cm
Bibliography•(M. Werbrouck,) Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Bruxelles. Département égyptien, Album, Bruxelles 1934, pl. 19
•Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis te Brussel. Oudheid, het Verre Oosten, Volkenkunde - Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire. Antiquités, Extrême-Orient, Ethnographie, Bruxelles 1958, Égypte nº 17
•Onder de Zon van Amarna. Echnaton en Nefertiti - Le règne du soleil. Akhnaton et Néfertiti (Exposition), Bruxelles 1975, 150 ° 76

sábado, 26 de marzo de 2016


The interior of Idu's tomb at Giza. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: Old Kingdom, 6th dynasty. Place of Origin: Giza. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ . Location: 13.


Fish Amulet

Fish Amulet
Dynasty 12, ca. 1938-1795 BC
Gift of Mohamed Farid Khamis and Oriental Weavers
This intricately carved gem would have originally had golden fins and an inlaid eye, probably of garnet. Such amulets were highly prized and the ancient tale of “Khufu and the Magicians” relates the story of a king’s concubine who was inconsolable at dropping her amulet into a lake until a famous wizard was able to part the water and retrieve the amulet.
These amulets would have been worn hanging down from a lock of hair and would have protected the wearer from drowning. The fish represented is a Synodontis, a type of catfish that often swims upside-down at the surface of the water. The ancient Egyptians saw this as a magical ability to stay afloat in the water, and as such it became a powerful charm to keep one from being submerged

Golden Mummies, el-Bahriya

Rear and side wall of the tomb Nr. 54, Valley of the Golden Mummies, el-Bahriya, Libyan desert, Egypt

jueves, 24 de marzo de 2016

Book of the Dead of Penmaat

Museum number



Full: Front
Book of the Dead of Penmaat; sheet 2; full colour vignettes; columns of cursive Hieroglyphic text in red and black ink.
© The Trustees of the British Museum

Book of the Dead Penmaat

Vignette from the Book of the Dead Penmaat. Penmaat is depicted in his position as a priest of Amun, burning incense and showing the shaved head that was required for priestly purity.

Sala hipóstila del templo de Esna

Sala hipóstila del templo de Esna

Versión egipcia del Tratado de Qadesh inscrita en un muro del Templo de Karnak.

Versión egipcia del Tratado de Qadesh inscrita en un muro del Templo de Karnak.

Hieroglyphic text of the peace treaty between Ramesses II and Hattusili III

Mammisi de época romana en el Templo de Dendera.

Mammisi de época romana en el Templo de Dendera.


Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Las referencias textuales relativas al cuidado del cabello en el Antiguo Egipto
son escasas pero significativas, destacando la sensualidad y el erotismo que simbolizaba el
pelo para los egipcios. Iconográficamente tenemos más referencias, esta vez relativas a los
gustos y a la simbología que se desprende de los distintos tipos de peinados, tanto
masculinos como femeninos.


miércoles, 23 de marzo de 2016

(Pseudo-)block statue of Prince Nimlot

Pseudo-)block statue of Prince Nimlot
The man's posture, with his arms crossed and his knees drawn up, perfectly evokes a spirit of contemplation. The body is shaped as a square on top of which is a head with a minimum of detail. The face has been cursorily modelled but its effect is nevertheless poignant. The shapes are angular. The eyes were originally added in paint so that they now appear to be closed. The lips are narrow, but distinct. The eyebrows, the nose, and the ears have only been roughly outlined. The statue gives the impression of an image of a man who is profoundly immersed in thought and concentrated introspection. This granite sculpture again demonstrates the Egyptian sculptor's intimate knowledge of his material. By carefully shaping the stone, he has created a cubic, static monument imbued with a strong spirit. The four sides of the figure have been almost entirely covered with inscriptions and images of gods. On the front is a figure of Amun-Re, on right side is Harakhty, and on the left, Ptah. Among other things, the inscriptions reveal the identity of the man portrayed: "The royal son of Ramesses, the head of the entire army, Nimlot; his mother is the daughter of the principal ruler of the foreigners Emoticono smile the Libyans), Pen-resh-nes".Nimlot was one of the sons of Shoshonk I, the Libyan ruler from Herakleopolis who succeeded in becoming king of Egypt. His eldest son Osorkon succeeded him, and his second son Awapet became High Priest of Amun in Thebes. The third son, Nimlot, was put in charge of the army. In this way Shoshonk I dominated the country with the help of his family. A remarkable aspect evident from Nimlot's monuments is his religious drive. For instance, he renewed the daily offering of a bull to his town god Harsaphes by annually donating sixty bulls. The block statue in Vienna would have been erected in the great temple of Heliopolis. The prayers in its inscriptions are full of original phrases which suggest a strong personal involvement in their composition.
Inventory number 5791
Archaeological Site UNKNOWN
Category STATUE
Material BASALT
Height 77.5 cm
Width 35 cm
Depth 35.5 cm
An offering which the king gives to Amun-Re, the Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, foremost of Karnak, the great god and lord of the sky, so that he may give life, prosperity and health, while I am whole and without evil, so that I will see Atum and my voice will be hidden, so that my perfection is heard in Heliopolis, so that my tendons are secure and my spirit is glorious, so that he may declare my justification daily, for the Ka of the straightforward one who is without evil and who hides aberrations, (namely:) the royal son of Ramesses and Commander of the entire army, Nimlot true of voice. His mother is the daughter of a commander, Pa-ta-res(u)-nes true of voice.
Speech by Ptah-Tatenen, the father of the gods. May he make my name to be lasting for eternity in its place of residence, and my heirs continuing in my place, while offerings are brought for his Ka. May he sanctify my monuments without interruption unto eternity, for the Ka of the uniquely qualified, the one of good character, Nimlot true of voice, who performs rituals for the god and who is good for the people, who takes care of the well-being of his brother without desisting, the royal son of Ramesses and Commander of the entire army, Nimlot true of voice.
An offering which the king gives to Amun-Re, the King of the gods, and Atum, who resides in the Great House, so that they may let my Ba traverse the desert country of Tefnut, and that it (the Ba) may encircle the temple in order to venerate him, so that he (the Ba) may receive bouquets of flowers, after I have sung the praises of the one residing in this place. May the lord of offering breads (or of the Enneads?) promise me the divine statues which rest in the place of judgement. May Iusaes, who resides in the Netherworld, unite me with Atum after I have been placed in the balance in the Hall of the Two Truths. May the lords of the ished-tree confer upon me as many years as leaves, (for) the Ka of the straightforward one, who destroys evil and sets Maat in its place, the royal son of Ramesses and Commander of the entire army, Nimlot true of voice. His mother is the daughter of a principal ruler of the foreigners, Pa-ta-r[es(u)-nes true of voice].
Speech by Re-Harakhty, the great god. May he make enduring for the heirs the years of peace without end into eternity. May he confer upon me years in joy and keep away evil from them.
Bibliography•Putter, Th. de & C. Karlshausen, Les pierres utilisées dans la sculpture et l'architecture de l'Égypte pharaonique. Brüssel ( 1992) 52.
•Rogge, E., Statuen des Neuen Reiches und der Dritten Zwischenzeit. Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum (CAA) Wien 6 (1990), 150-163.
•Seipel, W. (ed.), Gott Mensch Pharao (1992), Nr. 148.
•Katalog: "5000 Jahre Ägyptische Kunst", Wien (1962), Nr. 140.
•Seipel, W. (ed.), Götter Menschen Pharaonen, Speyer (1993) = Dioses, Hombres, Faraones, Ciudad de México (1993) = Das Vermächtnis der Pharaonen, Zürich (1994), Nr. 134.
•Satzinger, H., Ägyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien (museum), Braunschweig (Verlag Westermann), 1987.
•Satzinger, H., Das Kunsthistorische Museum in Wien. Die Ägyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung. Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie 14. Mainz. 1994.
•Kunsthistorisches Museum (KHM). Führer durch die Sammlungen. Wien. 1988.
•Komorzynski, E., Das Erbe des alten Ägypten. Wien 1956.
•Katalog: "Land der Bibel", Wien (1997), Nr. 75.

Piezas de juego, posiblemente de senet

Piezas de juego, posiblemente de senet
Periodo tardío
Museo Petrie

Egipto faraónico. Política, Economía y sociedad

Egipto faraónico. Política, Economía y sociedad

Jesús J. Urruela Quesada


Sarcophagus of Pa-nehem-isis

Sarcophagus of Pa-nehem-isis
Coffins in the shape of a mummy are known in wood from as early as the Middle Kingdom; in the New Kingdom they are made of stone. The numerous such coffins dating from the Late Period are particularly impressive, especially since their faces, being the optically most conspicuous element of the coffin, have often been carved in the realistic style of contemporary portrait sculpture. The sarcophagus of Pa-nehem-isis [Pnehmêse] is a remarkable example from the Ptolemaic Period, with its large face and its profusion of inscriptions and images, covering the whole surface. The figures have been carved in the hard stone with great precision. The deceased is wearing the tripartite wig and a broad collar. No other part of the mummy's body has been indicated. The rear part of the wig merges into a broad back pillar.
Only the most important elements from the figurative decoration can be mentioned here. On the forehead is a scarab as a symbol of resurrection, flanked by two goddesses. Divided over the two sides are the rare, and for sarcophagi rather unique, depictions of the four winds or cardinal points. Below the broad collar is a pectoral with a winged scarab, flanked by Isis and Nephthys. Below this is a cartouche with the name of Osiris as Wen-nefer, flanked by two seated figures of Osiris. Below this in the first long register is a solar disk with rays flanked by Isis and Nephthys in adoration. Behind each goddess stand four worshipping baboons (see also the baboon figure with a king, Inv. No. 5782). The following register has a Ba-bird with a human head flanked by the gods Shu and Thoth and two further deities behind each of them. The fourth register shows the deceased as Osiris lying on a bier shaped like a lion, with the human-headed ba-bird hovering above him. Isis and Nephthys stand on either side of the bier and pour water over it. The foot end of the sarcophagus has a chapel depicted on the front with a djed-pillar symbolising Osiris. It is flanked by baboons holding knives with a protective function. Likewise, the two hieroglyphs for the "west", below it, belong to the Osirian symbolism as indicators of the realm of the dead. However, the flanking lions show that the signs represent the sunrise. In Egyptian theology, a link could be made between the two most significant images of the resurrection: Osiris and the sun.
The numerous texts on the body derive mainly from the various Books of the Netherworld, which describe the nocturnal journey of the sun. A small part has been taken from the Book of the Dead. The bottom has been engraved with depictions of gates with their armed doorkeepers, images representing the Netherworld.
Inventory number 4
Archaeological Site SAQQARA NECROPOLIS
Material BASALT
Height 47.5 cm
Width 66.05 cm
Bibliography•Bergmann, E. von, Übersicht über die ägyptischen Alterthümer (1876).
•Bergmann, E. von, Der Sarkophag des Panechemisis, Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des österreichisches Kaiserhauses I und II (1883, 1884), 1-40; 1-20.
•Seipel, W. (ed.), Gott Mensch Pharao (1992).
•Seipel, W. (ed.), Götter Menschen Pharaonen, Speyer (1993) = Dioses, Hombres, Faraones, Ciudad de México (1993) = Das Vermächtnis der Pharaonen, Zürich (1994).
•Katalog: "Osiris, Kreuz und Halbmond", Stuttgart (1984), Nr. 79.
•Satzinger, H., Ägyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien (museum), Braunschweig (Verlag Westermann), 1987.
•Satzinger, H., Das Kunsthistorische Museum in Wien. Die Ägyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung. Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie 14. Mainz. 1994.

lunes, 21 de marzo de 2016

El polvo de momia

El polvo de momia

En el renacimiento se empiezan a criticar algunas supersticiones medicinales que estuvieron de moda en la Edad Media. y es que se habian utilizado momias y se las habia triturado para conseguir el famoso polvo de momia.
Debido a la confusión de la palabra "mummia" que en persa significada betún, y despues de que muchos viajeros comenzaran a contar cosas, como que las momias tenian caracter curativo ( heridas,etc) etc etc ,se produce una caza de momias egipcias para ser molidas y obtener el famoso polvo de momia.

Muchos boticarios diluian el polvo en vino y miel, otras veces se tomaba directamente con agua. Pero habia veces que no venían en polvo, sino que directamente venian trozos del cadáver o en forma de pasta negruzca What a Face